Languages supported by idioma

Albanian

Albanian is a language used mainly in Albania and Kosovo, but it also is practiced in other parts of the Balkans with Albanian populations as well as in some communities in Greece. The language originates from the Indo-European language group. In 1908 official, standardized Albanian was developed using the Latin alphabet as its base. Previously it had been written in various alphabets, including Greek, Arabic (Turkish version) and Cyrillic. Albanian today has approximately 6 million speakers.

  • Official language of Albania and Kosovo
  • Minority language in parts of Macedonia, Montenegro and Italy


Alphabet:
A , B, C, Ç, D, Dh, E, Ë, F, G, Gj, H, I, J, K, L, Ll, M, N, Nj, O, P, Q, R, Rr, S, Sh, T, Th, U, V, X, Xh, Y, Z, Zh a , b, c, ç, d, dh, e, ë, f, g, gj, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, nj, o, p, q, r, rr, s, sh, t, th, u, v, x, xh, y, z, zh

Basque

Basque is a language spoken by people in the Basque country, a geographic area in northeastern Spain stretching into parts of southwestern France. This region has over the past centuries contracted. Recently as a result of the Basie nationalistic movement, the language has made a slight comeback.

Several dialects of Basque exists, however, the main dialect is Euskara Batua, a standard introduced in the 1960s which is generally taught in Basque schools.

Basque is spoken by a little less than one million people. The language has co-official status in the Basque regions of Spain, but has no official status in the French regions.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z

Belarusian

Belarusian, or White Russian, is an East Slavic language spoken by somewhere between 7 and 9 million people, most of them residing in Belarus. It is an official language in Belarus and parts of Poland. Belarusian is most closely related to Ukrainian, and it is indeed also a minority language in Ukraine.

Belarusian uses the Cyrillic alphabet, but previously also made use of the Latin alphabet. While Belarusian has had a troubled past and originally was regarded as rural language for peasants, even assuming a second role to Russian in years after the Second World War, it has survived as a national and official language of Belarus. It shares this position with Russian. Surprisingly, out of a population of 9.5 million people, only about half are able to write in the language, while ten percent of the population does not understand Belarusian at all. According too a study from 2009, more than 70% of the Belarus population speaks Russian at home.

Alphabet:
А Б В Г Д Е Ё Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Ы Ь Э Ю Я а б в г д е ё ж з и й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш ы ь э ю я

Bosnian

Bosnian is a variant of Serbo-Croatian. It originally used the Cyrillic alphabet, but today also uses the Latin alphabet due to the influence of Serbo-Croatian when Bosnia was part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Both alphabets are equal, but Cyrillic is used less and less today. Cyrillic, however, has greatly influenced the development of the Bosnian language and remains a link to the past.

Since the 1990s, Bosnian has developed considerably integrating literary traditions from the 20th century and adopting loan words from the Islamic and Oriental worlds.

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina officially has three languages: Bosnian, Croat and Serb. All three languages are mutually understandable. Bosnian is in wide use throughout the Balkans.

For various reasons, Bosnian is also referred to as Bosniak.

  • Official language in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Montenegro
  • Native language of a little over 2 million people

Alphabet:
Latin
A B C Č Ć D Dž ĐE F G H I J K Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž
a b c č ć d dž đ e f g h I j k l lj m n nj o p r s š t u v z ž

Cyrillic
А Б Ц Ч Ћ Д Џ Ђ Е Ф Г Х И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Ш Т У В З Ж
а б ц ч ћ д џ ђ е ф г х и ј к л љ м н њ о п р с ш т у в з ж

Bulgarian

Bulgarian is a South Slavonic language, spoken in Bulgaria and in some parts of Ukraine and Moldova, populated by Bulgarian minorities. It is the only Slavonic language that has no cases for nouns and adjectives, unlike Russian, Serbian, Polish, Czech and other languages of the group. It is closely related to Macedonian and Serbian. Bulgarian uses the Cyrillic alphabet. Bulgarians are proud to be the inventors of this alphabet. St Cyril and St Methodius Day is celebrated as an official holiday in Bulgaria.

  • Spoken by about 10 million people of which 8 million are in Bulgaria
  • Official language of Bulgaria
  • Official EU language since 2007
  • Cyrillic is the EU's third official alphabet


Alphabet:
А Б Г Д Е Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ю Я а б г д е ж з и й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ъ ь ю я

Catalan

Catalan is a Romance language. It is the official language of Andorra and enjoys co-official status in a few Spanish communities, mainly on Spain's east coast, among others in Valencia, where it is called Valencian. Similar to Spanish, Catalan also originates from Vulgar Latin. The language has had a troubled past, at times being banned in use. At this time there are efforts to revive the language, among others by the General Council of Pyrénées-Orientales, to further promote it in public life and education.

  • Somewhere between 9 and 10 million speakers, not necessarily native.


Catalan uses the Latin alphabet and uses acute accents (é, í, ó, ú) as well as grave accents (à, è, ò).

Alphabet:
A B C Ç D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c ç d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Croatian

Croatian is a South Slavic language used primarily in Croatia, by Croats living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in neighboring countries where Croats make up autochthonous communities, and parts of the Croatian diaspora. It is sometimes classified as belonging to the Central South Slavic diasystem (also referred to as "Serbo-Croatian").

The modern Croatian standard language is a continuous outgrowth of more than nine hundred years of literature written in a mixture of Croatian Church Slavonic and the vernacular language. Croatian Church Slavonic was abandoned by the mid-15th century, and Croatian as embodied in a purely vernacular literature (Croatian literature) has existed for more than five centuries.

  • Spoken by 4,800,000 native speakers and approx. 6.5 million people around the world
  • Croatian is an official language in Croatia
  • Three-letter code: HRV


The Croatian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with special characters ć, č, đ, š, ž, dž; it does not have q, w, x, y

Alphabet:
A B C Č D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž a b c č d dž đ e f g h i j k l lj m n nj o p r s š t u v z ž

Czech

Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers. Čeština, Czech, is the name derived from a Slavic tribe of Czechs that inhabited Central Bohemia in former days.

Today it is the official and main language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide (especially by immigrants in the USA, Canada, and Ukraine). Czech is similar to and mutually intelligible with Slovak.

  • Official EU language
  • Some words do not have vowels: zmrzl (froze solid), ztvrdl (hardened), scvrkl (shrunk), vlk (wolf) and smrt (death)


It features the consonant ř, a phoneme that is said to be unique to Czech language.

Alphabet:
A Á B C Č D Ď E É Ě F G H Ch I Í J K L M N Ň O Ó P Q R Ř S Š T Ť U Ú Ů V W X Y Ý Z Ž a á b c č d ď e é ě f g h ch i í j k l m n ň o ó p q r ř s š t ť u ú ů v w x y ý z ž

Danish

Danish is one of the Scandinavian languages, a branch of Germanic. It is most closely related to Norwegian and Swedish.

  • Danish has 5.3 million native speakers
  • Danish is a secondary official language of Greenland and the Faeroe Islands
  • Official EU language


In addition to the standard English alphabet, Danish ends with …X Y Z Æ Ø Å.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å

Dutch

Dutch is a West Germanic language primarily used in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is closely related to other West Germanic languages (e.g., English, West Frisian and German) and somewhat more remotely to the North Germanic languages. Dutch has considerably influenced Afrikaans, one of the official languages of South Africa and the most widely understood in Namibia.
  • Spoken by 24 million people around the world, primarily in the Netherlands and Belgium
  • Dutch is an official language in Belgium. Sometimes this is referred to as Flemish, Vlaams, which covers a group of Dutch dialects with slight differences from standard Dutch
  • Official EU language

In addition to the standard English alphabet, Dutch ends with … X Y IJ Z.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y IJ Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y ij z

English

English is spoken as a native language by around 375 million people and as a second language by around 375 million speakers in the world. English is the official language in 53 countries and enjoys special status in at least twenty plus more countries with a total population reach of over two billion.

  • Official EU language
  • One of six official languages of the United Nations
  • One of the three working languages of the European Commission
  • Spoken by more than 250 million people in the USA, 180 million people in India, 58 million in the UK, 18 million in Canada, and 16 million in Australia
  • Modern English is the dominant language in international communications.


Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Estonian

Estonian belongs to the Finno-Ugric group of languages, that has its roots somewhere behind the Ural Mountains. Today, there are several dozens small Finno-Ugric populations settled in North Europe, in the Volga and Ural region, and in Siberia and the Russian Far North. Closest to Estonian are the Finnish languages, first of all Finnish.

  • Estonian is currently spoken by less than a million people in Estonia and smaller communities scattered throughout the world.
  • Estonian is the official language of the Republic of Estonia.
  • Official EU language


In addition to the standard English alphabet, Estonian includes Š Ž Õ Ä Ö Ü. Loanwords can include F, Š, Z and Ž, while C, Q, W, X and Y are used in writing foreign proper names. These letters are not considered part of the Estonian alphabet.

Alphabet:
A B D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V Õ Ä Ö Ü a b d e g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v õ ä ö ü

Finnish

Finnish is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family and is closely related to Estonian and Saami. It is the official language in Finland and is used by Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden and Estonia. The majority (more than 90%) of Finland’s population speaks Finnish, while the remainder speaks Swedish and Sami.

  • Finnish is spoken by a little more than 5 million people in Finland
  • Official EU language


In the Finnish alphabet, 'Å’ is carried over from the Swedish alphabet and is redundant in Finnish; it is merely retained for writing Finland-Swedish proper names.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V X Y Z Å Ä Ö
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v x y z å ä ö

Flemish

Flemish, or Vlaams in Dutch, is the standard Dutch variant spoken in the Belgian region of Flanders. It includes several dialects, all of which are interrelated with the southwestern dialects of Dutch.

Flemish is highly similar to the Dutch languages used in the Netherlands. The main differences are in pronunciation and frequency of certain words. Because certain words (around 3-4,000) are more frequent in Belgian Dutch, many refer to the language as Flemish, however the words are indeed part of standard Dutch. There are no spelling differences between Dutch in Belgium and Dutch in the Netherlands.

  • 6.1 millions speakers in Flanders, Belgium

Standard Dutch alphabet:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y IJ Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y ij z

French

French is a Romance language spoken by 65 to 80 million people around the world as a native language, and by an additional 200 million or so people as a second or third language. Most native speakers of the language live in France, while most of the rest live in Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Francophone Africa, Luxembourg, or Monaco. French originates from the Latin language of the Roman Empire. Today, it is an official language in 29 countries, especially in many African countries, most of them former French or Belgian colonies.

  • Official EU language
  • One of the three working languages of the European Commission


Standard English alphabet with added ligatures (œ and æ) and also frequent use of acute accent ( ´ ), grave accent ( ` ), circumflex ( ˆ ), diaeresis ( ¨ ), and the cedilla ( ¸ ). Diacritics have no impact on the primary alphabetical order.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Galician

Galician is spoken in northwestern Spain. Galician evolved in the Kingdom of Galicia, now parts of Portugal, and while many insist it is a sibling of Portuguese, modern Galician s largely regarded as an independent language.

Galician is spoken by approximately three million people in Galicia, where it alongside Castilian Spanish enjoys official status, albeit the first language of choice in public administration. Galician is taught both in primary and secondary school as well as at university level.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z
The letters J, K, W ad Y are only used for loan words.

German

German is the official language of Germany and Austria and one of the official languages of Switzerland and Belgium. It is used by more than 100 million speakers and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Apart from Standard German of Germany spoken by 88 million, Austrian German (Österreichisches Deutsch) has 8 million speakers, while Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch) has 5 million speakers.

  • Official EU language
  • Native language of around 100 million people with about 80 million non-native speakers
  • One of the three working languages of the European Commission


Same as English alphabet with the addition of Ä, Ö, Ü / ä, ö, ü, ß When sorting, these extra letters are treated like their base characters, as if the dots (umlauts) were not present.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Greek

The Greek language (or Modern Greek as it is sometimes called) belongs to the Indo-European language family and is the continuity of Ancient Greek. Both languages share almost the same alphabet, grammar, syntax and vocabulary. Therefore, Modern Greek is the most closely related language to Ancient Greek, from which Latin language and all the Latin-derived languages were influenced. The Greek alphabet is considered to be the earliest European alphabet.

  • Spoken by over 17 million people around the world, mainly in Greece but also in the U.S.A., Canada, Germany, Brazil, Australia, etc. A dialect of Greek (Greek Cypriot) is also spoken in Cyprus
  • Greek is the official language in Greece and in Cyprus


  • Official EU language


The Greek alphabet has 24 letters whereas English has 26.

Alphabet:
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Hungarian

Hungarian is a non-Indo-European language, a member of the Finno-Ugric group of languages (like Finnish and Estonian). The vocabulary of Hungarian has borrowed quite a lot of words from Turkic languages, Slavic languages, and German.

  • Hungarian has about 14.5 million native speakers, mostly in Hungary and its seven neighboring countries
  • Agglutinative language, which uses suffixes and prefixes extensively
  • Features vowel harmony
  • Hungarian uses the Latin alphabet, with several extra letters: accented vowels (á, é, í, ó, ö, ő, ú, ü, ű), digraphs (two characters representing a single letter (cs, dz, gy, ly, ny, sz, ty, zs) and even a trigraph (dzs)
  • Official EU language


Characters with diacritical marks are considered separate letters. Vowels that differ only in length are treated the same when ordering words. Example: O and Ó are not distinguished in ordering, neither are Ö and Ő, but the latter two follow the O's.

Alphabet:
A Á B C Cs D Dz Dzs E É F G Gy H I Í J K L Ly M N Ny O Ó Ö Ő P (Q) R S Sz T Ty U Ú Ü Ű V (W) (X) (Y) Z Zs a á b c cs d dz dzs e é f g gy h i í j k l ly m n ny o ó ö ő p (q) r s sz t ty u ú ü ű v (w) (x) (y) z zs

Icelandic

Icelandic is a North Germanic language and the language of Iceland. It resembles Faeroese and West Norwegian dialects such as Sognamål. Icelandic is a descendant of Old Norse.

  • Spoken by around 300,000 people, the entire population of Iceland
  • The insular nature of the Icelandic people has meant that the Icelandic language retained its purity over the centuries


Alphabet:
A Á B D Ð E É F G H I Í J K L M N O Ó P R S T U Ú V X Y Ý Þ Æ Ö
a á b d ð e é f g h i í j k l m n o ó p r s t u ú v x y ý þ æ ö

Irish

Irish is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family. It originates in Ireland, and was historically spoken by the Irish, but today only a small part of the population speaks the language. Irish has status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland, it was voted an official language of the European Union in 2005, and it is recognized as a minority language in Northern Ireland.

In the Republic of Ireland, Irish has largely lost out to English, but it remains a required subject of study in schools, while all official documents issued by the Irish government must be published in both Irish and English or only Irish.

Irish is spoken as a native language only in parts of Ireland, mostly on the west coast.

  • Official EU language
  • Native speakers estimated at between 20,000 and 30,000


Alphabet:
A Á B C D E É F G H I Í L M N O Ó P R S T U Ú
a á b c d e é f g h i í l m n o ó p r s t u ú

Italian

Italian is a member of the Romance group of languages. It is the official language of Italy and San Marino, and one of the official languages of Switzerland. Italian is spoken by about 58 million people in Italy, 30,000 in San Marino, and 840,000 in Switzerland. Italian is regarded as the 4th or 5th most studied language in the world.

  • Official EU language
  • Primary language of the Vatican City


Uses the same letters as in the English alphabet with acute, grave and circumflex accents on vowels.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Latin

Latin is the official language of the Vatican City. It derives from the Indo-European branch, from which Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian originate. Although it was spoken in the Mediterranean area, it also influenced the Germanic languages and is currently used in abbreviations (“e.g.” derives from the Latin “exempli gratia” and “i.e.” is short for “id est”). Latin terminology is widely used, amongst other things, in philosophy, medicine, biology, law and for official purposes.

  • Latin is spoken daily by around 800 people
  • Latin is the official language of the Vatican City


Compared to the English alphabet, the Latin language has 23 letters and lacks the letters: J, U, and W and it does not have a cursive script.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i k l m n o p q r s t v x y z

Latvian

Latvian is one of two living languages of the Balts (the other being Lithuanian), a group of its own within the Indo-European language family. Latvian is an inflective language with several analytical forms, three dialects, and German syntactical influence. The modern standard Latvian alphabet uses 22 unmodified letters of the Latin alphabet (all except Q, W, X and Y). It adds a further eleven letters by modification. Latvian spelling has almost perfect correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. Every phoneme has its own letter so that a reader need not learn how a word is pronounced, but simply pronounce it.

  • Latvian is the official state language of Latvia.
  • There are about 1.5 million native Latvian speakers in Latvia and about 150,000 abroad.
  • Latvian is an official EU language.


Alphabet:
A, Ā, B, C, Č, D, E, Ē, F, G, Ģ, H, I, Ī, J, K, Ķ, L, Ļ, M, N, Ņ, O, P, R, S, Š, T, U, Ū, V, Z, Ž a b c d e f g h i k l m n o p q r s t v x y z

Lithuanian

Lithuanian language is an Indo-European language of the Baltic branch. It is closely related only to Latvian language, and it was only after 800 AD that the two languages started to differentiate. Lithuanian language is a highly inflected language in which the relationships between parts of speech and their roles in a sentence are expressed by numerous flexions.

  • Lithuanian has 3.4 million native speakers.
  • It is spoken in Lithuania and, as a language of Lithuanian ethnical minorities, in the UK, Ireland, Poland, Belarus, Canada, the USA and other countries.
  • It is an official language in Lithuania.
  • Latvian is an official EU language.


Lithuanian language uses a modification of the Latin alphabet. For sorting, note the position of the “Y”.

Alphabet:
A Ą B C Č D E Ę Ė F G H I Į Y J K L M N O P R S Š T U Ų Ū V Z Ž a ą b c č d e ę ė f g h i į y j k l m n o p r s š t u ų ū v z ž

Luxembourgian

Luxembourgian or Luxembourgish is spoken in Luxembourg where it is the national language. The language is also spoken in small parts of Belgium and France. It belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages, and several dialects exist.

Until the mid 20th century, Luxembourgian has lacked an official orthographic system, however today Standard Luxembourgian is regulated through an orthographical standard introduced in 1975 and a spelling reform adopted in 1999.

  • Official language of Luxembourg
  • Spoken by some 300,000 people

Alphabet:
The Luxembourgian alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters and has three modified letters: é, ä and ë.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Macedonian

Macedonian is the official language of Macedonia, a country with geographic location in the Balkans and bordered by Serbia, Albanian, Greece and Bulgaria. It is a minority language in Albania. The language belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages and is closely related to Bulgarian and Serbian with mutual intelligibility between the three languages.

  • Approximately 2 million speakers not accounting for about 500,000 speakers in the rest of the world


The Macedonian alphabet essentially uses the Cyrillic letters, however, it has also been influenced by the Bulgarian and Serbian alphabets.

Alphabet:
А Б В Г Д Ѓ Е Ж З Ѕ И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Т Ќ У Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш а б в г д ѓ е ж з ѕ и ј к л љ м н њ о п р с т ќ у ф х ц ч џ ш

Maltese

Maltese is the national language of Malta, and island in the Mediterranean, where it enjoys co-official status together with English since 1934. Maltese originates from Siculo-Arabic (the Arabic dialect that developed in Sicily and the rest of Southern Italy), but has substantial borrowed vocabulary from Sicilian, Italian and recently also English. The percentage of borrowed words is estimated to be more than 50%. It is the only Semitic language written in the Latin alphabet.

Today, in the general population, there is a trend towards increased used of English, and many parents nowadays choose to bring up their children in English.

  • Official EU language
  • Estimated 500,000 Maltese speakers, 400,000 of which lives in Malta


Alphabet:
A B Ċ D E F Ġ G H Ħ I IE J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Z Ż
a b ċ d e f ġ g h ħ i ie j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x z ż

Moldavian

Moldovan is the official language of the Republic of Moldova, a country with about 700,000 inhabitants. It is basically the same as the Romanian language, and indeed many Moldavians consider Romanian to be their mother tongue. Until 1989 Moldovan was written with the Cyrillic alphabet, after that the Latin alphabet was adopted and since 1994, officially the language uses the Latin alphabet through constitutional decree. It can, however, also be transcribed using the Cyrillic alphabet (so-called Moldavian), and in Transnistria, a territory within the Moldavian Republic, the Cyrillic alphabet is still used.

Alphabet:
A B V G/Gh D E/Ie J G Z I/Ii I C/Ch L M N O P R S T U F H Ţ C Ş Â/Î I Ă Iu Ea
a b v g/gh d e/ie j g z i/ii i c/ch l m n o p r s t u f h ţ c ş â/î i ă iu ea

Montenegrin

Montenegrin language is the name given to the Ijekavian-Shtokavian dialect spoken in Montenegro. Montenegrin is a South Slavic language. In January of 2008, the government of Montenegro formed the Council for codification of Montenegrin language which aims to standardize the Montenegrin language according to international norms.

  • Spoken by over 140 thousand people primarily in the Montenegro.
  • Montenegrin was proclaimed as the official language of Montenegro in the new Constitution on 22 October 2007.


Alphabet:
A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Š T U V W X Y Z Ž
a b c č ć d đ e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s š t u v w x y z ž

Norwegian

Norwegian is a Scandinavian language and a branch of the Germanic languages. Two standard varieties of Norwegian exist: Bokmål and Nynorsk. Nynorsk is used primarily in the western regions and is spoken by around 0.5 million people. Bokmål is used by the rest of Norway and remains the preferred variant when writing Norwegian. Today Nynorsk and Bokmål both have equal legal status in Norway.

  • Norwegian has slightly more than 4 million native speakers (of which around 0.5 million practice Nynorsk)
  • The private and commercial sectors of Norway's economy are dominated completely by Bokmål, while all public bodies uphold both variants


In addition to the standard English alphabet, Norwegian ends with … X Y Z Æ Ø Å.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å

Polish

Polish is a West Slavic language, an official language of Poland. It is most closely related to Czech and Slovak. Polish is highly inflected with seven cases for nouns, pronouns and adjectives. It also has a complex gender system, but uses only three tenses.

  • Spoken by around 46 million people around the world, primarily in Poland (around 38 million), and by immigrant communities in many countries in Europe, the UAE and USA (11 million Polish Americans)
  • There are no definite or indefinite articles in Polish
  • Official EU language


Alphabet: In addition to the standard Latin alphabet, Polish uses 9 special characters (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż; Ą, Ć, Ę, Ł, Ń, Ó, Ś, Ź, Ż) and special character pairs (ch, cz, dz, dż, dź, sz, rz) which represent sounds not available in the Latin alphabet.

Alphabet:
A Ą B C Ć D E Ę F G H I J K L Ł M N Ń O Ó P R S Ś T U W Y Z Ź Ż
a ą b c ć d e ę f g h i j k l ł m n ń o ó p r s ś t u w y z ź ż

Portugese

Portuguese is a Romance language originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal. It is derived from the Latin language spoken by the Romanized Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around 2000 years ago. It spread worldwide in the 15th and 16th centuries as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire. It is one of the world's major languages, ranked 6th according to number of native speakers (approx 180 million).

Currently a new international orthography agreement is being implemented for the Portuguese language. It is an attempt to unify Portuguese in Portugal and Brazil, planned for completion by around 2015.

  • Portuguese is the official language of Portugal and Brazil and in a number of Africa nations.
  • Portuguese is an official EU language.


Together with Spanish, Portuguese is the fastest growing language in Europe. Portuguese uses 23 letters of the Latin alphabet with use of five diacritics.

Portuguese also uses Á, Â, Ã, À, Ç, É, Ê, Í, Ó, Ô, Õ, Ú.

These are not regarded as independent letters and do not have separate entries in dictionaries.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V X Z
a b c d e f g h i j l m n o p q r s t u v x z

Romanian

Romanian is a Romance language, primarily used in Romania and also Moldova. It is closely related to other Latin languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. It is also related and very similar to Moldavian, used in Moldavia.

  • Official language of Romania and Moldova
  • Romanian has 22 millions native speakers in Romania
  • Official EU language


In addition to the standard English alphabet, Romanian has specific sounds …Ă, Î, S, Ţ.

Alphabet:
A Ă Â B C D E F G H I Î J K L M N O P Q R S Ş T Ţ U V W X Y Z a ă â b c d e f g h i î j k l m n o p q r s ş t ţ u v w x y z

Russian

Russian is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. It belongs to the family of Indo-European languages. Due to the status of the Soviet Union as a superpower, Russian had great political importance in the 20th century. Russian is the native language of around 165 million people and second language of an additional 110 million people. Over a quarter of the world's scientific literature is published in Russian.

  • Spoken primarily in Russia and Belarus
  • One of six official languages of the United Nations
  • Official EU language


Alphabet:
А Б В Г Д Е Ё Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я а б в г д е ё ж з и й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ъ ы ь э ю я

Serbian

Serbian is a member of the South Slavic group of languages and is the official language of Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina Serbian can be written in two different alphabets: Serbian Cyrillic script and Serbian Latin. Both writing systems were promoted in Yugoslavia. The Cyrillic script has official status under the 2006 Constitution of Serbia, but the Latin script continues to gain ground as a result of its popularity among the business community and urban population. The basic principle of Serbian is “Write as you speak and read as it is written”.

  • 6.5 million speakers in Serbia
  • 500,000 speakers in Montenegro
  • 1.6 million speakers in Bosnia-Herzegovina


Alphabet:
Cyrillic
А Б В Г Д Ђ Е Ж З И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Т Ћ У Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш
а б в г д ђ е ж з и ј к л љ м н њ о п р с т ћ у ф х ц ч џ ш

Latin
A B C Č Ć D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž
a b c č ć d dž đ e f g h i j k l lj m n nj o p r s š t u v z ž

Slovak

Slovak, also known as Slovakian, is an Indo-European language belonging to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech and Polish). The language is very similar to Czech and the two are mutually intelligible, with the exception of some dialects in East Slovakia that have structural differences. Slovak has been influenced by many languages, including Czech, Polish, German, and Hungarian.

In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into Slovakia and the Czech Republic and Slovak then became the official language of Slovakia. The language however is still very closely related to Czech with close cultural and educational contact. For economic reasons, a large number of books published in Slovakia are written in the Czech language.

  • Official language in Slovakia and Vojvodina (in Serbia)
  • Slovak is an official EU language
  • 5 million native speakers in Slovakia
  • Spoken by small minorities in the USA, Czech, Republic and Serbia


Alphabet: A Á Ä B C Č D Ď Dz Dž E É F G H Ch I Í J K L Ľ M N Ň O Ó Ô P Q R Ŕ S Š T Ť U Ú V W X Y Ý Z Ž
a á ä b c č d ď dz dž e é f g h ch i í j k l ľ m n ň o ó ô p q r ŕ s š t ť u ú v w x y ý z ž

Slovenian

Slovenian is a Slavic language most closely related to Croatian and a distant relative of languages such as Russian. It is spoken by about 2 million people in Slovenia, as well as smaller communities in neighboring countries and immigrants around the world. Slovenian is a heavily inflected language with some ancient grammatical peculiarities, such as the dual grammatical number. Despite the small number of speakers, the dialects are heavily diversified and strong dialects from opposite sides of the country, influenced by neighboring languages, are practically mutually unintelligible.

  • Official language of Slovenia
  • Slovenian is an official EU language.


Slovenian uses the Latin alphabet, without the letters Q, X, Y, W and with the addition of a few extra letters. The letters Q, X, Y, W, however, are used as independent letters in encyclopedias and dictionary listings (and as such are included in the alphabet here).

Alphabet: A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Š T U V W X Y Z Ž
a b c č ć d đ e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s š t u v w x y z ž

Spanish

Spanish or Castilian (castellano) is an Indo-European, Romance language that originated in northern Spain and gradually spread in the Kingdom of Castile eventually evolving into the principal language of government and trade. It was taken to Africa, the Americas, and Asia Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. It is one of six official languages of the UN and, after Chinese Mandarin, is the language most spoken around the world by the number of speakers who has it as a mother language. Spanish language is spoken, as the first and second language by between 450 and 500 million persons.

The Spanish, as other romance languages, is a modern extension of spoken Latin (also called Vulgar Latin) from around the 3rd century A.D.

Spanish is the official language of more than twenty countries, mainly in the Americas besides Spain, but it is generally spoken on all five continents.

  • Official EU language
  • One of six official languages of the United Nations


Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L Ll M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l ll m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z

Swedish

Swedish is one of the Scandinavian languages, a branch of the Germanic languages. It is the official language of Sweden and one of the official languages of Finland. Until World War II, it was also spoken in parts of Estonia and Latvia.

  • Official EU language
  • Spoken by approximately 9 million people in Sweden
  • Swedish is also one of the official languages in Finland where is it spoken by around 300,000 people


Swedish uses the Latin alphabet and has in addition to English these three letters …X Y Z Å Ä Ö.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Å Ä Ö
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö

Turkish

Turkish is predominantly used in Turkey and Cyprus. It has approx. 63 million speakers many of which can also be found in Greece, Bulgaria and other parts of Eastern Europe. Turkish is also spoken by several million immigrants in Western Europe. Turkish has been highly influenced by Ottoman Turkish and has expanded as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, the Ottoman script was replaced with a phonetic variant of the Latin alphabet.

  • Spoken by 63 million people mainly in Turkey and Greece
  • Uses the Latin alphabet but with some variants


Alphabet: A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I I J K L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z
a b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z

Ukrainian

Ukrainian is the state language of Ukraine, the national language of Ukrainians. It belongs to the Slavic languages (the Eastern-Slavic group), being a part of the Indo-European language family, and is currently emerging from a long period of decline. The total number of the Ukrainian speaking population is estimated to around 39 million people. Ukrainian language is also spoken in Russia, Poland, Canada, Slovakia, Byelorussia, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Transdniestria (Moldova).

Historically, Ukrainian originates from Old Russian language. The vocabulary of the language is based on the words of common Slavic origin, but it also contains a great number of words formed during the period of its own historical development. Ukrainian includes a number of borrowed words that originally come from German, Polish and other languages. Since 1991, independent Ukraine has made Ukrainian the only official state language and implemented government policies to broaden the use of Ukrainian.

The Ukrainian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic alphabet and has 33 letters.

Alphabet: А Б В Г Ґ Д Е Є Ж З И І Ї Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ь Ю Я
а б в г ґ д е є ж з и і ї й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ь ю я

Arabic

Arabic is the language of the Holy Quran, poetry and Literature. Arabic is a Semitic language of the Arabo-Canaanite subgroup. With approximately 186 million speakers, it ranks in sixth place among the world’s major languages. Classical Arabic is used as the language of prayer and recitation throughout the Islamic world. Arabic differs from Latin languages in that it is written right to left, but sequences of digits, such as telephone numbers, read from left to right.

  • As the Arabic world is very large, it is not surprising that a large number of Arabic dialects have developed.
  • Arabic is the official language of 25 different nations.
  • Arabic can be sub-classified as follows: Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic and Colloquial Arabic.
  • The Arabic alphabet has twenty-eight (28) letters.
  • Official UN language


Alphabet:
أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل م ن ه و ي

Armenian

Armenian is the official language of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh (in Azerbaijan). It is an Indo-European language with its own script. Classical Armenian language has imported numerous words from Iranian languages but has also borrowed words from both Greek and Latin. Additionally, the language has been influenced by Arabic and Turkish languages. Armenian today has two main dialects: Eastern and Western.

  • 5.5 million speakers


Alphabet:
Ա Բ Գ Դ Ե Զ Է Ը Թ Ժ Ի Լ Խ Ծ Կ Հ Ձ Ղ Ճ Մ Յ Ն Շ Ո Չ Պ Ջ Ռ Ս Վ Տ Ր Ց Ւ Փ Ք Օ Ֆ ա բ գ դ ե զ է ը թ ժ ի լ խ ծ կ հ ձ ղ ճ մ յ ն շ ո չ պ ջ ռ ս վ տ ր ց ւ փ ք օ ֆ

Azerbaijani

Azerbaijani also known as Azeri belongs to the Turkic language family. It is used by the Azerbaijani people in southwestern Asia, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran, and is closely related to Turkish, Qashqai and Turkmen. Azerbaijani has many loan words and expressions from the Persian, Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Russian languages.

Azerbaijani did not become an official language until 1956, and after gaining independence from the Soviet Union, the country decided to switch to the Latin Script.

Azerbaijani has two varieties. One is the North Azerbaijani that uses both Latin and Cyrillic scripts, the other is South Azerbaijani that has adopted the Perso-Arabic writing system.

North Azerbaijani is the official language of Azerbaijan. It is spoken mainly in Azerbaijan, southern Dagestan and along the Caspian coast. South Azerbaijani is spoken in East and West Azerbaijan and in parts of Iran and Kurdistan, Iraq, Syria and Asian Turkey.

  • Spoken by some 25-35 million people
  • Official language in Azerbaijan
  • One of the official languages in Dagestan

Alphabet:
Latin A Ə B C Ç D E F G Ğ H X I İ J K Q L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z a ə b c ç d e f g ğ ı i j k q l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z

Bengali

Bengali is an Indo-Aryan language used in the area of Bengal of eastern South Asia including the Andaman and Nicobar islands. The language is the sixth largest language in the world and dates back at least 1,000 years, some say more.

Many different variations of Bengali exist, however, the main and generally accepted dialect is the West-Central one, called Nadia, spoken in West Bengal and Bangladesh.

Similar to different dialects, Bengali also has different scripts of which today Cholito bhasa is the generally accepted script and is the standard for written Bengali. Bengali is assumed to include some 100,000 separate words.

The letters in the Bengali script run from left to right. It uses the same punctuation as in western scripts, however the full stop is represented by the down stroke (|). Bengali still lacks a uniform sorting order, although attempts are underway to solve this.

  • Official language in Bangladesh
  • Official language status in West Bengal, Tripura and Barak Valley (in India)
  • Approximately 203 million native speakers

Alphabet:
Vowels:
অ, আ, ই, ঈ, উ, ঊ, ঋ, এ, ঐ, ও, ঔ

Consonants:
ক, খ, গ, ঘ, ঙ; চ, ছ, জ, ঝ, ঞ; ট, ঠ, ড, ঢ, ণ; ত, থ, দ, ধ, ন; প, ফ, ব, ভ, ম; য, র, ল, ব; শ, ষ, স, হ; ড়, ঢ়, য়;

Chinese Simplified

Simplified Chinese is the official language spoken by the world's largest population (1.3 billion people), namely the People's Republic of China, and the basic communication tool of today's most buoyant economy. This language system, consisting of several thousands of characters with each having unique meanings, is dramatically different from the western languages in terms of its wording, syntax and methods of expression. Apart from mainland China, Simplified Chinese is also an official language in Singapore and used daily by millions of overseas Chinese people living in various places on our globe. If you are seeking business opportunities or planning to explore markets in China or Singapore, it's definitely a winning strategy to send over your messages in Simplified Chinese!

  • Working language of the U.N.


Alphabet samples:
欢迎您采用我们的翻译服务

Chinese Traditional

Chinese is the most important language among Sino-Tibetan. Standard Chinese developed gradually from the Mandarin in the north of China over several hundred years, with Peking tone as its standard tone. Traditional Chinese is the official language of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. The writing system is also referred to as ‘standard characters', orthodox characters’ and ‘complex characters’.

  • Used by most people in the world. Nearly one fifth of the world population, about 1.3 billion people, speak Chinese as their mother language.
  • One of the most ancient languages in the world, with a history of 6000 years.
  • Working language of the U.N.


As special hieroglyphs in the world, Chinese has a character as its minimum unit. Characters are meaning-representing syllabic characters, with the special characteristics of integration of vision, voice and meaning. Syllables can be divided into three parts, namely initial consonant, compound vowel and tune.

Alphabet samples:
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Hebrew

Hebrew is a Semitic language. Biblical Hebrew is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic, which are spoken around the territory where many of the biblical stories are focused.

Modern Hebrew was invented as an adjunct to the Zionist movement. One of its first and most avid innovators was Eliezer Itzchak Perlman of Belarus, who created much of the modern vocabulary between 1885 and 1922. Mr. Perlman is renowned for raising the first “Hebrew-speaking” child – he forbade anyone to utter a word in any other language around his firstborn son, Ben Zion (who later changed his name to Itamar).

Hebrew is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel, along with Arabic. Modern Hebrew is spoken by some six million people inside Israel and one to two million people outside the country. Liturgical Hebrew is used by quite a few more people, in both Jewish and Christian religious settings.

Hebrew is read from right to left using a distinctive 22-letter alphabet.

Modern Hebrew is governed by an official committee – The Academy of the Hebrew Language. Decisions by the Academy are enshrined in law, and frequently ignored by speakers of the language.

Alphabet:
בּ ב ג גּ ג׳ ד דּ ד׳ ה ו וּ וֹ ו׳ ז ז׳ ח ט י ִי כּ ךּ ך כ ל
/ ם מ ן נ ס ע פּ ףּ פ ף ץ צ ץ׳ צ׳ ק ר שׁ שׂ תּ ת ת׳

Hindi

Standard Hindi, also known as Modern Hindi, is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another Indian language. While many Hindi and Urdu speakers claim these are two different languages this is largely due to religious nationalism and communal tensions, and it hard to tell the colloquial languages from each other. Hindi has borrowed its vocabulary heavily from Sanskrit.

In the Indian constitution from 1950, Hindi was declared the principal national language of India, and it may be worthwhile to note that English is the secondary national language.

Standard Hindi is based on khariboli, a dialect of Delhi and surrounding regions. In the 17th century, this dialect acquired linguistic prestige and became generally known as Hindustani, or Urdu. After India became independent, a language reform led to Standard Hindi with a modern grammar and orthographic standards.

41% of the population in India speaks Standard Hindi or a Hindi dialect, Including Urdu. Hindi is the fourth largest language of the world, after Chinese, Spanish and English. The main script of Standard Hindi is Devanagari, it is also the most commonly used alphabet for writing Sanskrit.

  • Official language in India
  • Close too 500 million speakers (including dialects)
  • 4th largest language of the world

Alphabet:
अ ब भ क च छ ड/द ध/ढ़ इ फ ग घ ह ई ज क ख ल म न/ण ऑ प फ क्यू र स श ट/त ठ/थ उ व व क्ष य झ

Indonesian

Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of Indonesia, the fourth most populous nation in the world. Spoken by 230 million native speakers and an additional 1.5 million people worldwide, it is considered to be one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. This language is derived from old Malay used by traders in the Malay Peninsula (Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore), with a lot of absorbed words mainly from Sanskrit, Dutch, Arabic, Chinese, and English. The language structure is very basic, with no plural forms, genders and tenses. Indonesian uses the standard 26 Latin-alphabet characters, with consistent spelling unlike English or French. From the demographic, socio-political, as well as marketing perspectives, Indonesian is a language to be reckoned with.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Japanese

Japanese (Nihongo in Japanese) is spoken by around 127 million people in Japan, plus a couple of million people outside of Japan. It is the official language of Japan and Angaur. Japanese is not directly related to any other language. It uses four writing systems: kanji, hiragana, katakana and romaji. Hiragana is syllabic and is used for simple words, conjugations, particles and children's literature. Katakana is used to write foreign words. Kanji is based on the Chinese writing system and consists of about 2000 basic signs, but there are thousands more. Romaji is a Romanization of Japanese words, basically relying on the letters in the Roman, or Latin, alphabet, used e.g. for company names, logotypes and text entry of Japanese text into computers. Japanese has borrowed many words from the Indo-European languages, primarily English.

Alphabet:
Hiragana (ひらがな)
あいうえおかきくけこさしすせそたちつてとなにぬねのはひふへほまみむめもやゆよらりるれろわをん がぎぐげござじずぜぞだぢづでどばびぶべぼぱぴぷぺぽぁぃぅぇぉっゃゅょ、。

Katakana (カタカナ)
アイウエオカキクケコサシスセソタチツテトナニヌネノハヒフヘホマミムメモヤユヨラリルレロワヲン ガギグゲゴザジズゼゾダヂヅデドバビブベボパピプペポァィゥェォッャュョー

Kanji examples
自動, 計算, 費用, 納期, 即時, 提示, 天気, 管理, 健康, 旅行, 料理, 鍋

Kazakh

Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan, but is spoken in a much broader area, starting from the west shores of the Caspian Sea to Tian Shan mountain range bordering on China. Indeed, there are believed to be more than 1 million speakers in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Kazakh is a Turkic language and a so called agglutinative language with vowel harmony. Today Kazakh employs the Cyrillic alphabet, but Kazakh speakers in China rely on an Arabic writing system variant, similar to that used to write Uyghur. Recently there have been efforts to introduce the Latin alphabet as the writing system in Kazakhstan, but for now these plans have been shelved for the reason of stability and cost.

  • Official language in Kazakhstan with approximately 10 million speakers
  • 3 million speakers in other countries

Alphabet:
а ә б в г ғ д е ё ж з и й к қ л м н ң о ө п р с т у ұ ү ф х һ ч ш щ ъ ы і ь э ю я
А Ә Б В Г Ғ Д Е Ё Ж З И Й К Қ Л М Н Ң О Ө П Р С Т У Ұ Ү Ф Х Һ Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы І Ь Э Ю Я

Khmer

Khmer, also known as Cambodian, is an Austro-Asiatic language and it is the official language of Cambodia. The language has been influenced by Sanskrit and Pali through Hinduism and Buddhism as well as the Southeast Asian languages of Thai, Lao and Vietnamese, but unlike those it is not a tonal language.

The language developed under the Khmer Empire, dating back to the 9th century, but goes back even further. It underwent turbulent change from the 14th to 18th century. Modern Khmer as used today cannot be used to interpret Old Khmer. Several dialects of Khmer exist with significant amounts of speakers in both Thailand and Vietnam.

Khmer is written in the Khmer script, from which both Thai and Lao have developed. This script also has its own numerals.

  • Official language of Cambodia
  • 15 million native speakers, 12.6 million of whom live in Cambodia

Alphabet:
The Khmer alphabet consists of 33 consonants supported by vowels represented by diacritics written above, below and/or alongside on either side of the consonant to modify it. This example shows consonants without the vowel diacritics.
ក ខ គ ឃ ង ច ឆ ជ ឈ ញ ដ ឋ ឌ ឍ ណ ត ថ ទ ធ ន ប ផ ព ភ ម យ រ ល វ ឝ ឞ ស ហ ឡ អ

Khmer numerals (0 to 9):
០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩

Korean

Korean is one of the Far East Asian languages, and has its own and unique alphabet system – Hangul. Hangul is used both in North and South Korea, and can be written from left to right or in columns from top to bottom starting from right. Spelling is slightly different between the two nations, but pronunciation is the same, and the two countries also have slightly different grammar and vocabulary.

Korean is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet dating back to the 15th century. Hanja, the Korean name for Chinese characters and traditionally used for words of Chinese origin, may be mixed in to write Sino-Korean words. South Korea still teaches 1800 Hanja characters in its schools, while the North abolished the use of Hanja decades ago.

  • Korean is the official language in South and North Korea.
  • Korean has around 80 million native speakers including North Korean.


Alphabet:
Consonants:
ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅇ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ, ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅆ, ㅃ, ㅉ
Vowels:
ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ, ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ, ㅣ

Malay

Malaysian is the official language of Malaysia. The language is also known as Standard Malay, and is closely related to Indonesian. It is the native language of some 10 million people, but is also spoken by many ethnic minorities.

Malaysian was declared the official language of Malaysia in 1957 and is today officially known as Bahasa Melayu. While Malaysian is the sole official language of Malaysia, English is still widely used throughout the country, especially in professional and commercial fields, and also in superior courts.

Malaysian uses the standard 26 letters in the Latin alphabet. The language can be said to be a mixture of many languages as it has borrowed many words from Arabic, Indian dialects, Persian, Dutch, Portuguese, Chinese dialects, and lately English. In the field of science and technology many English terms have been adopted. It is then heavily influenced by the Indonesian language.

  • Official language in Malaysia and Singapore
  • Use 26-letter Latin alphabet without any diacritics
  • 10 million native speakers

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Persian

Persian – also known as Farsi – is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Iranian branch. Persian and its varieties have official-language status in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. Historically Persian is a more widely understood language in an area ranging from the Middle East to India. Significant populations of speakers can be found in other Persian Gulf countries (Bahrain, Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates), as well as large communities in the USA.

There are approximately 80 million native speakers of Persian in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and about the same number of people in other parts of the world speaks Persian, at least as a second language.

Words are written from right to left, numbers are written from left to right. The modern Persian alphabet has 32 letters

Alphabet:
ا، ب، پ، ت،5.ث، ج، چ، ح، خ، د، ذ، ر، ز، ژ، س، ش، ص، ض، ط، ظ، ع، غ، ف، ق، ک، گ، ل، م، ن، و، ه، ی

Tagalog

Tagalog, also known as Filipino or the native Pilipino, is one of the two official languages of the Philippines, the other being English. Tagalog is an Austronesian language and as such related to Malay, Javanese and Hawaiian. Tagalog is the first language of one third of the Philippines, and the second language of the remaining two thirds.

Very little is known about Tagalog that most likely has its origins in Mindanao. Literally Tagalog means “river dweller”. Tagalog was declared the official language by the Philippines’ first constitution in 1897. Today, Tagalog is concentrated to the central and southern parts of Luzon, but is also spoken on many other islands.

Until 1987, Tagalog was based on a writing system consisting of 20 Latin letters, the so called ABAKADA alphabet. Today it adopts 28 letters under the official name Filipino.

  • One of two official languages of the Philippines (English is the other)
  • 21.5 million speakers as a first language
  • 70 million speakers as a second language
  • Spoken by many ethnic minorities (1.5 million in the United States)

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ NG O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ ng o p q r s t u v w x y z

Tamil

Tamil is spoken in southern India, Sri Lanka and Singapore and by many migrant groups in Malaysia, South Africa, and even Canada, USA and parts of West Europe. It is based on the Dravidian vocabulary and has received strong impact from Sanskrit, however, the pure Tamil movement in the 20th century has sought to remove this influence, and there is now a movement to build expressions and words on Tamil roots, in this process also replacing many loan words from English and other languages.

In India, it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and as such, like the other languages, is subject to official measures to further develop the language. Tamil has existed for more than 2000 years and can be traced back to the 3rd century B.C. It is regarded as one of the longest surviving classical languages in the world, and as such offers a wealth of classical traditions.

  • Official language in Sri Lanka, Singapore and the south Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and Puducherry
  • Around 85 million native speakers

Tamil script
Vowels:
அ ஆ இ ஈ உ ஊ எ ஏ ஐ ஒ ஓ ஔ

Consonants:
க் ங் ச் ஞ் ட் ண் த் ந் ப் ம் ய் ர் ல் வ் ழ் ள் ற் ன்

Tamil numerals (0 to 10)
௦ ௧ ௨ ௩ ௪ ௫ ௬ ௭ ௮ ௯ ௰

Thai

Thai is the official language of Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia with a population of 63 million.

Thai is a tonal language. Different tones give different meaning, which makes it quite difficult to learn at the beginning.

Thai alphabets were first introduced in 13th century by an ancient great king. Over time, characters have changed in appearance. Today the language contains 44 consonants with 42 that are still in use, and 21 vowels in 32 combinations.

Thai words are often – although not always – composed of characters. That means in one single column, there may be up to three characters including consonant, vowel, and tone composed together.

Alphabet:
Consonants:
ถ ท ธ น บ ป ผ ฝ พ ฟ ภ ม ย ร ล ว ศ ษ ส ห ฬ อ ฮ ก ข ฃ ค ฅ ฆ ง จ ฉ ช ซ ฌ ญ ฎ ฏ ฐ ฑ ฒ ณ ด ต
Vowels:
ะ ั า ํ ิ ่ ่ ่ ุ ู เ โ ใ ไ ็ อ ว ย ฤ ฤๅ ฦ ฦๅ Tone forms:
่ ้ ๊ ๋

Turkmen

Turkmen is the national language of Turkmenistan where it is spoken by approximately 7 million speakers, with close to 1 million additional speakers that live in border regions, primarily Afghanistan and Iran. It resembles the Hwarazm dialect of Uzbek and many people in this region also understand Turkmen.

Turkmen is closely related to Turkish and Azerbaijani, and these three languages are members of the Turkic language family. And similar to these, Turkmen is also characterized by vowel harmony. Originally, Turkmen was written in the Arabic alphabet, however, a switch was made in favor of the Latin alphabet in 1929. In 1940, the Latin alphabet was replaced by the Cyrillic writing system due to Russian influence in Turkmenistan, but the Latin alphabet was reintroduced in 1991 when Turkmenistan regained independence. Many people in Turkmenistan oppose this reintroduction and still favor the Cyrillic script. In other regions outside Turkmenistan, Turkmen is often written with an Arabic alphabet, e.g. in Afghanistan.

  • Official language of Turkmenistan
  • Approximately 4 million native speakers and another 4 million speakers as second language

Alphabet:
A B Ç D E Ä F G H I J Ž K L M N Ň O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü W Y Ý Z
a b ç d e ä f g h i j ž k l m n ň o ö p r s ş t u ü w y ý z

Urdu

Urdu is a member of the Indo-Aryan family of languages and is spoken in Pakistan and India with the number of speakers varying widely from a conservative 60-80 million to 130 million.

Urdu is a modification of the Persian alphabet, and is written from right to left. Many consider Urdu and Hindi to be two standardized forms of the same language, however, Urdu originates from the Perso-Arabic script.

  • Official language of Pakistan (shared with English)
  • One of 23 official languages of India with official status in several provinces


Alphabet:
ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر ڑ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ہ/ﮩ/ﮨ ھ ء ی ے

Uyghur

Uyghur belongs to the Turkic language family, and it is derived from Old Turkic language with its origins in Mongolia and Xinjiang. Uyghur has somewhere between 8 and 11 million speakers. Formerly known as Eastern Turkish, it is today a language spoken by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (of Western China) where its status is that of official language. Uyghur is widely used in public life and in official settings as well as in print, radio and television.

Uyghur has been influenced to a large degree by Persian and Arabic, and more recently also by Russian and Chinese. Like the other Turkic languages, it has vowel harmony. Generally it has three main dialects, Central, Southern and Eastern, where the Central dialect is clearly the dominant one and spoken by 90% of the population.

Uyghur writing dates back to the fifth century and is a writing system based on the Arabic script. This writing system still dominates today, although Uyghur also can be written in two different Latin alphabets as well as Cyrillic. In Xinjiang, the Uyghur Arabic script is adopted as the official writing system, while the other alphabets are primarily used in areas outside Xinjiang.

  • Official language in Xinjiang (West China)
  • 8-11 million native speakers

Alphabet:
ا ئە،ە ب پ ت ج چ خ د ر ز ژ س ش غ ف ق ك گ ڭ ل م ن ھ ئو،و ئۇ،ۇ ئۆ،ۆ ئۈ،ۈ ۋ ئې،ې ئى،ى ي

Uzbek

Uzbek is the official language of Uzbekistan. It is a Turkic language spoken by the Uzbeks and also in other parts of central Asia, predominantly in the former Soviet Republics.

The language has been influenced to a large degree by Persian and Arabic, even by Islam religion and its Russian past. Before 1928, Uzbek was written in the Arabic script, however following a language reform that year, the Latin script was adopted similar to other Turkic languages. In 1940 in connection with the expansion and impact of the Soviet empire, Uzbek switched to the Cyrillic script. Today the Latin script has been officially reintroduced, and it is taught in schools and used in the media and public life.

  • Official language of Uzbekistan
  • 25 million native speakers in Uzbekistan
  • Around 12 million speakers in other Central Asian countries.

Latin alphabet:

A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z O‘ G‘ Sh Ch
a b d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z o‘ g‘ sh ch

Vietnamese

Vietnamese is the national language of Vietnam, spoken by approximately 70 million people in Vietnam and about 3 million mostly in the United States. It uses the Latin alphabet, but with frequent use of diacritics, and has borrowed a large part of its vocabulary from Chinese. Formerly until the 20th century, the language was written using the Chinese writing system.

Vietnamese belongs to the Austroasiatic language family (that also includes Khmer, which is spoken in Cambodia).

Alphabet:
A Ă Â B C D Đ E Ê G H I K L M N O Ô Ơ P Q R S T U Ư V X Y
a ă â b c d đ e ê g h i k l m n o ô ơ p q r s t u ư v x y

Brazilian Portugese

Brazilian Portuguese language is one of the Latin languages. It is the official language of Brazil and it is very similar to European Portuguese, but with several differences in spelling and grammar. Currently a new international orthography agreement is being implemented for the Portuguese language. It is an attempt to unify Portuguese in Portugal and Brazil, planned for completion by around 2015.

  • Brazilian Portuguese has 181 million native speakers
  • Brazilian Portuguese is a very rich and complex language due to its phonological system.


Portuguese follows the standard English alphabet, but excludes the letters K, Y, W.

The following characters also exist: Á, Â, Ã, À, Ç, É, Ê, Í, Ó, Ô, Õ, Ú, Ü.
They are not regarded as independent letters and do not have separate entries in dictionaries. The trema on Ü is currently only used in Brazilian Portuguese.

Alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V X Z
a b c d e f g h i j l m n o p q r s t u v x z

Canadian French

French is a Romance language. Canadian French is a regional dialect, which slightly differs in style and vocabulary from European French. Its evolution has been influenced by the various immigrants who colonized this country, and who all came from different regions of France, each with its own patois.



  • There are over 9.5 million French speakers living in Canada, representing nearly one-third of Canada’s population. French is a minority language in Canada, but a majority language in the province of Quebec.
  • Montreal, Quebec, is the largest French-speaking city in North America, and among the largest French-speaking cities in the world.
  • Canada is a member of La Francophonie, as well as the Commonwealth of Nations.




The French alphabet is the same as the English one, but includes diacritics: à, â, é, è, ê, ë, î, ï, ô, ù, û, ç.



Alphabet:

A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V X Z

a b c d e f g h i j l m n o p q r s t u v x z

Greenlandic

Greenlandic is a language spoken by the Inuit people in Greenland. The main dialect, Kalaallisut, of Western Greenland belongs to the Eskimo-Aleut family and became the official language of Greenland when it gained autonomy from Denmark in 2009. Modern Greenlandic has loaned many words from both English and Danish, but when adopting new technologies, attempts are made to construct words based on Greenlandic roots. Today, the language is regulated by the Greenland Language Committee.

Since a home rule agreement in 1979, Greenlandic is the only language used in primary schooling, causing many young people to be bilingual in both Greenlandic and Danish, while their parents are monolingual in Danish.

  • Only official language of Greenland since 2009 when Danish was abandoned
  • 58,000 native speakers
  • Written in Latin script since it became a Danish colony in the 1700s

Alphabet:
The Greenlandic alphabet is very short:
A E F G I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V
a e f g i j k l m n o p q r s t u v

But it uses the letters b, c, d, h, x, y, z, w, æ, ø and å to enable spelling of loan words from Danish and English.

Mexican Spanish

Spanish was introduced in Mexico in the 16th century in connection with Spanish adventurers conquering the country and setting up colonial administration in Mexico City. This caused a standardizing effect of Mexican Spanish in the region, and Mexican Spanish, although not a standard as such, is commonly used in the United States of America as well in Canada and the Mexican communities that live there.

In the USA, Mexican Spanish is common in the Southwest on one part due to Texas’ independence from Mexico and on the other due to the migration waves from Mexico during the 19th and 20th century. Interestingly, Caribbean Spanish is more common on the US East Coast where there are many Puerto Rican communities.

Mexican Spanish differs from European Spanish in that it includes a number of words considered old-fashioned in Europe, and due to Mexico's historical past, many terms, especially botanic ones are based on a Nahuatl, Mayan or other native origin.

  • Mexican Spanish has somewhere around 10 different native varieties
  • Geographically limited to Central America
  • National language of Mexico together with 68 distinct indigenous Amerindian languages

South-America Spanish

Similar to Mexican Spanish, the various Spanish tongues used in South America differ not only from standard Spanish used in Spain, but also among one another. In some countries, Chile for example, the Spanish dialects are rather conservative, whereas in others like the Caribbean Islands, a number of innovative elements can be observed.

As such, it is incorrect so simply speak of South-American Spanish since the dialects linguistically differ to a great deal among each other. Geographically, they are Spanish varieties spoken in the same part of the world.

Swahili

Swahili is a language spoken in several East African countries, even reaching across the Mozambique Channel to northern Mozambique. It is a language that dates back at least 1,000 years. During the colonial period, it has been much influenced by German, English, Portuguese, French and even Arabic. Today, Swahili uses the Kiunguja dialect as a basis for standardization and regulated by National Swahili Council in Tanzania.

It is spoken by tenths of million of people, possibly even by more than on hundred million people, either as a primary or secondary language throughout the middle and eastern parts of Africa.

  • Official language in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Comoros
  • Two writing systems: Latin and Arabic

Alphabet:
Swahili used to be based on the Arabic scripts, however, a writing system based on the Latin script is common today.

Latin version:
A B CH D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z
a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

Amharic

Amharic is one of the official working language in Ethiopia and has official status in six of the eleven administrative regions with a total of around 25 million native speakers. It belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language group, and after Arabic it is the most spoken Semitic language in the world.

Amharic is written from left to right, and the script, also known as Ge'es, relies on graphs, called fidel, that basically represent syllables, i.e. consonant and vowel combinations. The alphabet has 33 basic characters, each of which has seven forms depending on which vowel should be pronounced in the syllable.

Originally, two alphabets were used for Amharic, Ge'es abjad and Ge'es abugida. The abugida variant is the one that Amharic is based on today, and it has developed largely under the influence of the Christian scripture and even Greek. Low numerals from one to ten are comparable to Arabic, Greek and Hebrew, but instead of applying the Ge'es scripture to the numbers, the digits are instead derived from the Coptic script.

The name of the language is derived from a district in northern Ethiopia, Amhara, which was most likely the historic center of the language.

Dari

Dari is a Persian language variant used in Afghanistan where it together with Pashto is an official language. Dari, which is often referred to as Afghan Persian, is spoken by a little over 50% of the Afghan population, or about 18 million people. It is the standard language used in public administration, by the government and in TV, radio and other media.

The language is predominant in the northern, western and central areas of the country although there are some distinctive characteristics between the various dialects used. Afghan Dari has its roots from Persian (also known as Farsi), and despite differences in grammar and pronunciation, speakers of Persian in Iran and Afghanistan can communicate with each other. Spoken Dari tends to closer resemble formal, classic Persian. For political reasons, however, Afghan Persian was termed Dari by the government in a 1964 decision.

Afghan Dari is written in the cursive Persian alphabet and builds on the Arabic writing system with some letters added and different diacritics.
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